In K-12 education, government programs such as No Child Left Behind (NCLB) led to extensive gaming and even cheating. Teachers? schools? funding, and their own employment, was dependent on their students? performance on standardized, government-mandated math and English exams. Hence, many teachers spent much of their class time ?teaching to the test.? This moved the emphasis toward test-taking and away from arguably more important activities with unmeasurable results, such as cultivating students? capacity for intellectual curiosity, good behaviour, and creative thought and innovation.